Ikiyaga cya Kivu Kuzamura gazi metani Guha agaciro gazi metani Inkeke iturutse ku mpamvu zisanzwe


IBIJYANYE N'IRUKA RY'IKIRUNGA CYA NYIRAGONGO, MU MWAKA W'2002

Iruka ry'ikirunga cya Nyiragongo, cyasenye igice cy'umugi wa Goma mu kwezi kwa mbere mu mwaka w'2002 ryerekanye ubundi bwoko bw'impanuka ishobora kuba yaterwa na za gazi nyinshi zili mu mazi y'ikiyaga k'Ikivu.

Mbere y'uko iyo mpanuka iba, impungenge z'izamuka rya gazi, cyane cyane z'uko imyuka ili muli icyo kiyaga ishobora gutulika, byafatwaga nk'ibintu byoroshye. Ariko ubu siko bikimeze. Igenekerezwa ry'impanuka, yaturuka ku mahindure ashobora gucengera mu ndiba y'ikiyaga, ndetse n'ikirunga kikaba cyavumbukamo, ntishobora kwigizwayo.

Akarwa kitwa ile aux cochons (ikirwa cy'ingurube) kagizwe n'ikirunga cyarukiye mu kiyaga (photo H. Tazieff).

Nyiragongo iruka, amahindure yashotse ku mumwa w'ikirunga agera kuli kilometero nka 15 uvuye ku munwa wa Nyiragongo. Iyo ayo mahindure ajya gukomezaho nka kilometero 6 cg. 7 ugana mu majyaruguru, ayo mahindure yashoboraga kugera kuli metero 33 mu ndiba y'ikiyaga, bigatuma byanze bikunze amazi yuzuye gazi azamuka. Ibicu bigizwe n'imvange y'umwuka wa gaz carbonique na metani byali kugaragara bifite ubukana bukomeye, ariko byashoboraga gutera impanuka ikomeye cyane : ni abaturage bose b'umugi wa Goma bali gupfa (abaturage ibihumbi magana ane), ndetse n'ab'umugi wa Gisenyi.

Uko kuzamuka kw'imyuka kuracililitse, ibintu byakomera kurushaho mu gihe ikirunga cyaba kirukiye mu ndiba y'ikiyaga.

Iruka rya Nyiragongo ryabaye mu kwezi kwa mbere mu mwaka w'2002 ryerekanye ibintu bitigeze bibaho mu myaka myinshi, byerekeranye n'imiterere y'ibirunga kuko ryatewe n'igice cy'icyo kirunga mu nda yacyo kisatuyemo kabili. Kandi birashoboka ko ubwo busate bushobora kuba bwagera munsi y'ikiyaga cya Kivu. Ikirunga kirukiye mu ndiba y'icyo kiyaga, hiyongeyeho amahindure yajyana nabyo, bishobora gutuma amazi yo mu ndiba azamuka, akazamukana na za gazi nk'uko byagenze ku kiyaga cya Nyos. Kandi ingano ya za gazi zili mu kiyaga cya Kivu zikubye inshuro zirenga igihumbi gazi zili mu kiyaga cya Nyos cyahitanye abantu igihumbi na magana inani mu mwaka w'1986 mu karere kali gatuwe cyane mu majyepfo ugana iburengerazuba bwa Kameruni. Kwaba kwivumbagatanya kw'i kivu k'uburyo ali akare kose kahagilira ibibazo : Goma, Gisenyi, Bukavu, ndetse na Bujumbura.
Izo gazi zishobora gutemba ahakikije ikivu hose, k'uburyo zishobora no kugera ku kiyaga cya Tanganyika kili kuli metero 700 munsi y'umujyi wa Bukavu. Abaturage bo muli ako karere bageze kuli miliyoni ebyili barebwa n'iyo mpanuka.


Impanuka ishobora kuba k'uburyo byatera ukwivumbagatanya kw'ikiyaga, gazi zilimo zigatulika, igomba kuba ifite ingufu nyinshi. Bishobora nko kuba iruka ry'ikirunga ryaba mu ndiba y'ikiyaga. Ntabwo ali ukwerekana ko impanuka ishobora kubaho, ahubwo iyo mpamnuka ntabwo ari ibintu bihimbwa. N'iyo iyo mpanuka yaba idakabije cyane, ni ngombwa kwerekana ingaruka zaba mu gihe yaba ibaye.

Twaguze mu isosiyete ya OSAE za raporo z'imilimo y'amapima yakozwe mu mwaka wa 1998 ; izo raporo zarizwe neza k'uburyo habonetsemo amashusho mu byiciro bitatu by'ikuzimu bw'ikiyaga cya Kivu, ayo mashusho ashyira ku mugaragaro agatsiko k'ibisimu bya kera byisatuye mu birunga ; bigaca mu nda y'ibirunga NYIRAGONGO na NYAMURAGIRA, ibyo birunga bili mu bujyakuzimu kuli metero 300 na 400, ni ukuvuga mu mibyimba nyirizina y'amazi yuzuyemo gazi ; iruka ry'ikirunga ryatera byanze bikunze impanuka zikomeye mu karere kose gakikije ikiyaga mu gihe hasotse gazi nyinshi. Miliyoni z'abaturage batuye mu turere twa Goma, Bukavu na Bujumbura barebwa n'icyo kibazo.

Turatekereza rero ko ali ngombwa kwiga neza iyo mpanuka nshya ishobora kubaho, kandi bikaba ali ngombwa gushyiraho uburyo buhoraho bwo kubulira abantu mu gihe byaba bigaragaye ko amazi afite ingufu nyinshi ku buryo budasanzwe.