Ikiyaga cya Kivu Kuzamura gazi metani Guha agaciro gazi metani Inkeke iturutse ku mpamvu zisanzwe


ITULIKA RY'UMWUKA MU KIYAGA CYA NYOS MULI KAMERUNI, 1986.

Niba bidakulikiraniwe hafi, iyo myuka ili mu kiyaga cya Kivu izatulika hejuru y'amazi. Niko bigenda iyo icupa rya champagne cg. limonade lifunguwe : mu kugusha imbaraga hasi mu icupa, imyuka ya gazi yali yivanze ihita yirundanya vuba mu icupa ikazamuka n'ingufu nyinshi ikazamukana n'ibili muri iryo icupa.

Niko byagenze, arili mu rwego rwo hejuru, ku kiyaga cya Nyos muli Kameruni. Mu ijoro ryo kuwa 21 z'ukwezi kwa munani 1986. Mu ndiba y'icyo kiyaga, gazi yabaye nyinshi cyane, ikwirakwira mu kiyaga hose. Yahise itulika isimbukana n'amazi hejuru mukirere ku burebure bwa metero 80. Gaz carbonique nyinshi cyane yavuye muli ayo mazi kuko yali ifite ingufu ziruta umwuka wo mu kirere, yahise ikwirakwira mu kibaya cyose gikikije ikiyaga, igenda ibuza umwuka ibihumeka byose yagendaga ihura nabyo kugera kuli kilometero 30 uvuye ku kiyaga. Abantu 180 bapfiliye muli iyo mpanuka.

Nyuma y'imyaka iyo mpanuka ibaye, isosiyete yacu yashatse gushyiraho uburyo bwo kuvoma iyo gazi ili mu kiyaga. Ni ugushyiraho no gukulikiranira hafi uburyo bwo kohereza iyo gazi ishobora kugilira abantu nabi mu kirere.
Kugirango ubwo buryo bwo kuzamura gazi bushobore gukulikiranwa, twashatse gushyira icyo twise " auto-siphon ". Ubu buryo burebana no gushyira mu kiyaga igitembo gihagaritse gikoze muli polyéstylène. Amazi yo mu ndiba y'ikiyaga, arimo gazi nyinshi azamuka muli icyo gitembo. Imbaraga zayo ziragabanyuka, hanyuma amazi akagera ku kigero cy'igihe gazi ilimo iba nyinshi cyane. Iyo ibaye nyinshi cyane, udufuro duto dutangira kwikora no kuzamuka mu gitembo. Iizindi mfuro zitangira kugaragara zikajyana amazi. Iyo bitangiye, kiuzamura amazi na pompe ntibiba bikili ngombwa. Amazi ahita yinaga mu kirere hejuru anyuze hejuru ya cya gitembo, akajyana na caz carbonique nyinshi. Ikigaya cya Nyons n'icya Monoun byo muli Kameruni byashyizwxeho ubwo buryo bwo kwigizayo gazi ishobora kugilira nabi abagituliye mu gihe yatulika nk'uko byagenze. Ku kiyaga cya Nyons, gazi ijugunwa kuli meztero 50 hejuru y'ikiyaga, naho ku kiyaga cya Monoun gazi ijugunwa kuli metero 10.

Gahunda yo kuvana gazi mu kiyaga cya Nyons n'icya Monoum (MNDP : Nyos and Monoum Degassing Programm) yahawe isosiyeti yacu, iyihawe na Guverinema ya Kameruni kandi kugeza ubu igenda neza . Kuvana gazi mu kiyaga cya Monoum bizafata imyaka itatu. Naho kuli Nyons, igitembo kimwe nicyo gikora ubu. Leta ya kameruni yasabye ibihugu by'i Burayi byishyize hamwe ko byayifasha mu gushyiraho ibindi bitembo bitanu. Bigiyeho, umutekano w'ikiyaga cya Nyons waba ugezweho nko mu hige k'imyaka itanu.

Iyo gahunda yo kuvoma imyuka yakozwe mu gihe k'imyaka icumi yatumye duteza imbere ubuhanga n'uburyo bwo kubara muri urwo rwego kugeza ubu rutaligeze rukorwaho ubushakashatsi. Ni ibyo twahungukiye n'ibikoresho twabashije guteza imbere, byaba ibikoresho bisanzwe cg. ibijyanye no gukoresha ibyuma kabuhaliwe bya oridinateri dushaka kwifashisha mu kuzamura gazi metani yo mu kiyaga cya Kivu.

A. Ifoto y'amazi asohoka mu gitembo cya 65 m gihagaritse hagati mu kiyaga cya Monoun akinaga ku burebure bwa metero 65, Mata, 1992 (ifito: J. Grangeon).

B. Ifoto y'amazi yinaga mu kirere mu kiyaga cua Nyos, Werurwe 1995: Ubushakashatsi bwakorewe hafi cyane y'aho bibera (ifoto: B. Canet).

C. Gashyantare 2002, amazi yinaga mu kirere n'ingufu nyinshi kuli metero 50 mu kiyaga cya Nyos (ifoto: M. Halbwachs). Bitewe n'ubwirunde bwayo buhwanye na 0,1, amazi agaruka ntashobora gutera imbogamizi n'ubwo aba afite umuvumba munini (urenga 100 km ku isaha).

D. Amazi yinaga mu kirere mu kiyaga cya Monoun, Gashyantare 2003 (ifoto : S. Chikhi).