Ikiyaga cya Kivu Kuzamura gazi metani Guha agaciro gazi metani Inkeke iturutse ku mpamvu zisanzwe


METANI IKORESHWA MU GUTWARA IMODOKA

Guteza imbere gazi metani kugirango ikoreshwe mu gutwara imodoka.

Gazi metani ivomwe yo mu kiyaga cya Kivu ishobora kuba isoko ikomeye yo gutwara imodoka. Metani, nk'isoko y'ingufu zo gutwara imodoka izwi mu Bufaransa ku izina rya GNV : gaz naturel véhicule.
Igomba kwegeranwa cyane kugera ku ngufu za 200 bars mu bigega byabigenewe. Ikoreshwa kandi ibikwa nk'umwuka. Ingano ya gazi ili mu gipimo cya 1 m3 ku ngufu za 1 bar no ku gipimo cy'ubushyuhe bwa 20°C gihwanye na litiro imwe ya mazutu. Ubushobozi bw'ingufu za gazi 8,9 kugera kuli 12,8 Kwh/m3. Hakulikije ibipimo by'izindi gazi zivanze na metani : cyane cyane CO2.

Kubera ingufu zikenerwa mu kubika gazi, igipimo kigereranyije k'ikigega gituma hakoreshwa imodoka za metani zidokenera ingufu za metani nyinshi. Gazi metani ishobora izindi ngufu zikenerwa mu gutwara aba bus, imodoka zisanzwen, ama taxis, imodoka zikoreshwa mu kazi : ubutegetsi, abanyabukorikori, kugemurira abacuruzi ibikoresho n'ibilibwa.

Imodoka y'akazi iliho ibikoresho bituma ikoresga gazi metani

Ku bijyanye n'ibidukikije

Gazi ikoreshejwe mu gutanga ubushyuhe isohora imyuka mibi mike. Nta soufre ilimo, kimwe na plomb, ndetse na benzène, kandi nta mpumuro igira, nta n'imyotsi y'umukara isohoka.

Imyuka ya CO2 isohoka mu gihe metani ikoreshejwe mu gutanga ubushyuhe ishobora kugabanyurwa kuko ilimo carbone nkeya cyane.

Equation chimique iboneka mu gihe metani ihuye n'indi myuka mu gihe ikoreshejwe mu gutanga ubushyuhe iteye itya : CH4 + 2 (02 + 3,76 N2) = 2 H20 + CO2 + 2 (3,76 N2) + Energie

Equation chimique iboneka mu gihe mazutu ihuye n'umwuka mu gihe ikoreshejwe mu gutanga ubushyuhe iteye itya : C12 H 26 + 37/2(02 + 3,76 N 2) = 12 CO2 + 13 H20 + 37/2 (3,76 N2) + energie

Ikigereranyo hagati ya C/H, ni ukuvuga ko hasohoka imyuka ya CO2 mike

 

Imodoka za gaz

Gazi metani ifite ikimenyetso gikomeye cya octane (120 kugera kuli 130) bigatuma itonona, ikora neza muli moteri.
Tugereranyije, ikimenyetso cya octane yo muli lisansi isanzwe mu gihugu cy'Ubufaransa ni 95. Ikimenyetso cya octane gipima ubukomere mukwiyatsa mu gihe uwo mwuka urundanyijwe kandi ushyuhijwe. Mu gihe icyo kigero ari kinini ikoreshwa ry'uwo mwuka rirashoboka muli moteri zifite ubushobozi buhanitse.

Imodoka zitaremereye zikoreshwa na gazi isanzwe zifite moteri za lisansi zifite injection ya gazi. Kugirango imikoreshereze ya lisansi na metani, ikigereranyo cy'ubunini cyalinganijwe na lisansi. Ibyo aliko ntibituma hakoreshwa ubushobozi bwose bwa gazi buliho ku kimenyetso cya octane, iyakoreshwa yashobora kuba nke kuli moteri zijyanye na gazi.

Ku modoka ziremereye zifite ibyuma bikoreshwa na mazutu zahinduwe kugirango zatswe hakoreshejwe uburyo bwa commande : igabanyuka ry'ikigereranyo cy'ubunini, uburyo bwo kwatsa, na injection gaz iboneye (moteri ntiba igikora bibaho ku buryo bwa mazutu, ahubwo ku buryo bw'iyatsa commandé). Muli icyo gihe ubiushobozi bwa gazi bukoreshwa neza ariko gukoresha byombi ntibishoboka.

 

 

Moteri ya bisi yahinduwe kugirango ikoreshwe na gazi


Ikamyo hayinduwe kugirango ikoreshwe na gazi

Ibyuma bihitisha gazi ku modoka (Citroën Belingo)

Ibikwa rya gazi ku modoka

Ibigega bya bus zikorera mu migi y'u Bufaransa ziri mu byiciro 7 (9 kuri buri bwoko) ku gipimo rusange cya 882 litiro (igipimo cy'imwe cya 126 litiro) ku ingufu za 200 (bars), aribyo bihwanye na 210 m3 za gaze z'ingufu z'ikirere. Icyo gipimo gihwanye na 210 litiro za mazutu, zigaha bus ubushobozi bwo gukora hagati ya 300 km na 400 km. Ibyo bigega bikoze mu budodo bwa Carbone na résine époxy ( cg alumiyumu) bifite ingufu nyinshi zishobora kugera ku gipimo cya 288 (bars) ni nkeya zigera ku gipimo cy'ingufu cya 20 ( bars) mu mikorere. Ingufu z'igeragezwa ni 600 bars.

Imodoka zoroshye zifite ikigega kiri inyuma y'intebe z'imbere. Zimwe zifite ibigega biteye mu nsi y'intebe, ku buryo bituma imyanya idapfa ubusa.( reba urugero rw'imodoka iri ku ntangiriro y'urupapuro).

Reservoir in a light goods vehicle.

Bisi yo mu mugi, ibigega bya gazi bili ku gisenge

 

Igenzura ry'ibigega bya gazi

 

Ikwirakwizwa rya metane mu gutwara imodoka

Ikigega cya gaze isanzwe gikozwe ku buryo buhambaye ugereranyije n'ikigega gisanzwe kuko gaze igomba gutsindagirwa cyane.

Hari uburyo bubili bw'ibigega bya gaze :

Gutsindagira gaze ku buryo bworoheje( 200 bars). Iyuzuzwa ryabyo rigenda buhoro ( amasaha menshi). Ni ngombwa rero guteganya ahahagarikwa imodoka habugenewe mu kuzuza gaze mu modoka.

Gutsindagira bikabije bikurikiwe no kubika gaze ku buryo bw'umwuka (250 bars) bituma iyuzuzwa ryihuta ku bibanza bya bugenewe. Ubwo buryo birumvikana ko buhenda kurusha ubwa mbere.

Ikigega kinini gifatirwaho gaze,( imodoka 500), kigura 500K Euros. Ikigega cya gaze kiringaniye( imodoka 50) kigura 80K Euros

Aho banyweshereza gazi imodoka

igipfundikizo cya gazi kilinda impanuka

 

Kuzuza ibisi gazi

 

Aho amabisi anyweshereza gazi

 

Imashini itsindagira gaze y'umwihariko

Iyo mashini ntoya ituma ituma ikigega cy'imodoka itwarwa na gaze cyuzura nyuma y'amasaha make (hafi amasaha atanu) . Igenewe ku gaburira imodoka nkeya ; Mu Bufaransa, igiciro cyayo ni 5.000 Euros

Kuzuza gazi imodoka mu rugo

Umutekano

Mu miterere yayo gaze isanzwe ntihumanya kandi ntiremereye ugereranyije n'umwuka wo mu kirere(densité 0.55), gaze izamuka mu kirere bwangu (0.8 m/s), ari nayo mpamvu itirunda ku butaka mu gihe imenetse.
Mwitondere kutayitiranya na GPL (gaze ya peteroli yahinduwe amazi : imvange ya butane na propane) ifite uburemere bwa 2.15 kandi ikwira ku butaka mu gihe imenetse.

Impungenge zo gufata umuliro no guturika

Kugirango gaz isanzwe yake, hagomba :

  • imvange y'umwuka na gaze ( hagati ya 5% na 15% bya gaze)
  • igipimo cy'ubushyuhe cyo kwiyatsa cya 540°c
  • umwanya ufunze

Imvange y'umwuka na gazi isanzwe ifite ubushobozi buke bwo kwaka n'ikigereranyo cy'ubushyuhe cyo kwiyatsa kinini. Impamvu zo kwiyatsa ni nkeya ku modoka.

Amagereranyo yakozwe yerekanye ko gazi metani ari kimwe mu bitwara imodoka bitera impanuka nkeya.

Impungenge zo kubura umwaka

Gazi isanzwe ntabwo ihumanya

  • 80/90% za metani (CH4)
  • Nta bintu byangiza ubuzima bilimo
  • Nta monoxyde de carbonne zilimo

Mu gihe gazi imenetse, umwuka usanzwe ushobora gufata umwanya w'umwuka wo mu kirere, bityo bigatuma umuntu uri mu cyumba abura umwuka.

Kubera umuvuduko munini wa gazi isanzwe mu kirere, iyo mpungenge ni ntoya mu mazu afite uburyo buhagije bwo guhitisha umwuka, na none buke cyane ku bakoresha imodoka ahantu hafunguye.