Ikiyaga cya Kivu Kuzamura gazi metani Guha agaciro gazi metani Inkeke iturutse ku mpamvu zisanzwe

 

KUGEZA GAZI METANI KU RUGANDA RW'ICYAYI RWA PFUNDA

 

Imbanziliza-mushinga y'ubukungu

Imibare imwe

Mu kigererabyo gikulikira, haremezwa ibihwanye n'ingufu zikulikira :
- PCI ya m3 imwe ya metani = 34000 kj ;
- PCI ya litiro ya mazutu = 42000 kj ;
Litiro imwe ya mazutu ihwanye na 1,25 Nm3 ya metani (Nm3 : m3 ku bushyuhe bwa 0°C no kufu z'ikirere)
1 MNm3 ya metani = 800 tep (bihwanye na tonni ya peteroli) ;

Ububasha bw'ubushyuhe bw'inkwi (mu Rwanda akenshi ni ubwoko bw'ibiti by'inturusu) birakomeye kubugereranya. Agaciro k'ubwinshi bwazo nk'uko byagaragaye muli za raporo, ku isiteri y'inkwi gahinduka hagati y'ibiro magana atatu (300 kg) n'ibiro magana atanu (500 kg) ku isiteri. Dutekereza ko ikigereranyo k'ibiro 350 ku isiteri cyaba kili hafi y'ukuli. PCI y'inkwi izafatwa kuli 15.000 Kj/kg
Kugereranya inkwi na gazi mu rwengo rw'ingufu bikorwa hakulikijwe ko : Isiteri imwe y'inkwi ihwanye na 150 Nm3 za gazi, zihwanye na 5 Gj.


Ibiciro byakoreshwaga mu Rwanda mu kwezi kwa munani 2004 byali biteye gutya:
- Isiteri imwe y'inkwi yaguraga = 5000 frw, ni ukuvuga ama euros 7,15 cg . amadolari y'amanyamerika 8,6
- Litiro imwe ya mazutu yaguraga : 350 frw, ahwanye n'ama euros 0,5 cg. amadolari y'amanyamerika 0,6
Euro 1 = 700 frw = 1,2 dolari y'abanyamerika
Tugereranyije igiciro cy'inkwi n'igiciro cya mazutu mu gihe ikoreshejwe ngo itange ingufu :
- Mazutu : 1 GJ = 12 Euros = 14 US $
- Inkwi : 1 GJ = 1,36 euros = 1,65 US $

Biragaragara ko igiciro cya mazutu ubu kikubye inshuro 8 cg. 9 ugereranyije n'igiciro k'inkwi, bikaba ali ibintu bitoroheye ubukungu bw'u Rwanda :
- Metani ntizahangana mu rwego rw'igiciro n'inkwi ,
- Metani izatanga umusaruro utagira ingano mu rwego rwo gusimbura mazutu.

Ibiciro byatanzwe aha bishobora guhinduka cyane hakulikije igihe. Hashobora guteganywa izamuka ry'igiciro cy'inkwi kubera ko amashyamba agenda aba make no kuba ibiti bigenda birushaho gukenerwa. Birakomeye ariko guhamya uko ibiciro bya mazutu bizaba byifashe mu minsi ili imbere (baril ya peteroli ubu ili ku giciro cy'amadolari 45 mu ntangiliro z'ukwezi kwa cyenda 2004).

Ikigereranyo cy'ingufu zikenewe n'uruganda rw'icyayi rwa Pfunda

Isarura ry'icyayi rikorwa hakulikije ibihe : bityo igihe uruganda rwa Pfunda rukorera kirahindagulika mu gihe cy'umwaka. Ingufu zikenerwa n'uruganda ziba ali nyinshi mu kwezi kwa gatatu (178 % by'ikigereranyo cy'ukwezi), naho ikigero cy'ingufu nkeya zikenerwa ni mu kwezi kwa munani (32 % y'ikigeranyo cy'ukwezi). Ubushobozi bwo guha uruganda gazi metani bugomba guteganywa hakulikijwe igihe inkwi zikenerwa ziba ali nyinshi cyane. Ubu mu kwezi kwa gatatu, hagati mu gihe imvura iba igwa, inkwi zikenerwa mu kumisha icyayi zigeze ku masiteri 20 ku munsi. Ni ukuvuga ko ali uguteganya guha uruganda gazi ingana na 20 x 150 = 3000 Nm3 ya metani ku munsi, ni ukuvuga ahagana 1,1 MNm3 ya gazi ku mwaka. Abayobozi b'uruganda rwa Pfunda batubwiye ko ahumishilizwa icyayi hateganyijwe kwagurwa mu myaka ili imbere. Turateganya gushyiraho uruganda rutunganya gazi rufite ubushobozi bwa 1,5 MNm3/an, k'uburyo yasimbura amasiteri y'inkwi 27 akenerwa buli munsi mu gihe cy'imvura, mu kwezi kwa gatatu.

 

Kubera ihindagulika ry'umusaruro w'icyayi mu gihe cy'umwaka (reba igishushanyo cyo hasi) ni ngombwa guteganya gusumbyaho gazi metani ikenewe mu gihe cy'izuba. Iyo gazi yashobora kugulishwa na UPEGAZ ku rwengero rwa byeli rwa Bralirwa kugirango isimbure mazutu (nk'uko bimeze ubu, ifite igiciro cya 90 % y'igiciro cya mazutu, kuli PCI bihwanye). Inkwi zikoreshwa n'uruganda rw'icyayi rwa Pfunda mu gihe cy'umwaka zanganaga n'amasireti 4300 mu mwaka w'2003. Iyo ngano yakenera 650.000 Nm3 ya gazi metani, ni ukuvuga ko hasigara 950.000 Nm3 ya gazi, zihwanye na litiro za mazutu 760.000. Inkwi zizakoreshwa kuva mu mwaka w'2004 kugera 2009 nazo ni nyinshi cyane kuko ikigereranyo cyerekana ko zingana n'amasiteri 5.800 ku mwaka (aribyo bihwanye n'amasiteri 27 ku munsi). Ingano ya gazi metani yashobora gukoreshwa ku ruganda rwenga byeri rwa BLARIRWA yaba ingana na 730.000 Nm3 ku mwaka, zihwanye na litiro 585.000 za mazutu. Duhereye ku giciro cya mazutu kiliho ubu gihwanye na 0,5 euros kuli litiro, kandi twitaye ku kigabanyo cya 90 % ugereranyije n'igiciro cya mazutu, kugulisha na BRALIRWA byaha UPEGAZ amafranga ahwanye na :
- uko ibintu bimeze ubu : 760.000 x 0,5 x 0,9 = 342.000 /ku mwaka
- Mu gihe uruganda rwaba rwaguwe : 585.000 x 0,5 x 0,9 = 263.000 /an.

Ahumishilizwa icyayi ku ruganda rwa Pfunda

 

Ariko na none, uruganda rw'icyayi rwa Pfunda rukoresha mu gihe cy'umwaka mu yindi milimo umuliro w'amashanyari uhwanye na 1.950.000 kWh (imibare twahawe n'abayobozi b'uruganda mu kwezi kwa 10/2003, n'ikigereranyo cya 1.500.000 kWh mu mwaka w'2002 ku musaruro wa toni 1.020 na fagitire y'amashanyari ihwanye na miliyo 63 z'amafranga y'u Rwanda, ahwanye n'amadolari y'abanyamerika 105.000),

Uruganda rufite kandi imashini itanga umuliro ungana na 450 kVA ikora mu gihe umuliro wabuze, bihwanye na 2 cg 3 ku ijana by'igihe cyose cyakoreshejwe mu mwaka w'2003 (ubu icyo kigereranyo kikaba cyaliyongeye cyane kubera ibura ry'amashanyarazi mu gihugu). Uwo muliro wiyongeraho uhwanye na 58.500 kWh kuli iyo mashini itanga umuliro, ikoresha kandi mazutu ifite agaciro ka miliyoni imwe n'ibihumbi magana arindwi by'amafranga y'u Rwanda ku mwaka, ni ukuvuga amadolari y'amanyamerika 2.800.

Byaba kandi byiza kurushaho hashyizweho uburyo bwo gukora amashanyarazi avuye kuli gazi. Ibi byashoboka ;
- moteri itanga umuliro ikoreshwa na mazutu iramutse ihinduwe igakoreshwa na gazi (kuyihindura byatwara amadolari y'abanyamerika ari hagati y'ibihumbi miringo itanu na mirongo itandatu
- cg. haherewe kuli moteri nshya ya 300 Kw (yashobora gushyirwaho uburyo bwo gukusanya ubushyuhe bwashobora gukoreshwa mu gususurutsa ahumishilizwa icyayi.
- Cg. harekerwaho uburyo busanzwe bufatira umuliro ku nsinga zisanzwe zigabulira igihugu (k'uburyo umuliro waba utakoreshejwe n'uruganda washobora kugulishwa mu gihe haba hagiyeho uburyo bwemewe bwo gushyira uwo muliro w'insaguka ku mashanyarazi asanzwe)

Gazi ikoreshwa yagira ubushobozi bungana n'ubw'imoteri isanzwe itanga umuliro ifite ubushobozi bwa 450 kW (cg. 300 kW nshya) kugirango ihe uruganda amashanyarai yaba angana na 25.000 GJ cg. 750000 Nm3 ku mwaka.


Umushinga wo gusimbuza inkwi gazi metani

Kuzamura gazi mu ndiba y'ikiyaga cya Kivu, no kuyitunganya byarasobanuwe (reba raporo yakozwa na Data Environnement, (kuzamura gazi metani yo mu kiyaga cya Kivu, umushinga w'igerageza, ukwezi kwa gatandatu, 2003). Inshamake y'uwo mushinga twayigarutseho kuli iyi dosiye.
Imbanziliza-mushinga, y'umushinga wo kuzamura gazi yo mu Kivu, hakulikije ibipimo k'uburyo hatunganwa 1,5 MNm3 ku mwaka yarakozwe. Hagereranyijwe kandi n'uruganda rw'igerageza rufite ubushobozi bwo gutanga 3,5 kugera kuli 4 MNm3 ku mwaka. Umushinga dutanga aha ushobora gutuma twemeza imibare yacu. Twibutse ko igerageza ryakozwe ku kiyaga cya NYONS muli Kameruni, kuzamura gazi, ibitembo byakoreshwejwe ntabwo byigeze birenza umubyimba wa 140 mm. Uruganda rwigerageza ruvugwa muli dosiye yakozwe mu mwaka w'2003 iteganya ibitembo bifite umubyimba wa 440 mm. Umubyimba w'ibitembo biteganyijwe gukoreshwa ku ruganda rw'icyayi cya Pfunda ungana na 280 mm.

Gutwara gazi metani kuva ku nkombe ya Rubona kugera ruganda rw'icyayi rwa Pfunda

Ahazashyirwa uruganda rutunganya gazi hazarobanurwa i Rubona, nko kuli 1 ,5 km uvuye ku nkombe z'ikiyaga cya Kivu

Inzira y'ibitembo bigenewe gutwara gazi kuva i Rubona kugera ku ruganda rw'icyayi rwa Pfunda.

 

 

Inzira y'ibitembo bya gaz