Ikiyaga cya Kivu Kuzamura gazi metani Guha agaciro gazi metani Inkeke iturutse ku mpamvu zisanzwe

IKIBAZO CY'INGUFU Z'UMULIRO MU RWANDA

U Rwanda ubu ruhanganye n'ikibazo gikomeye cyo kubura ingufu z'umuliro zihaje mu mateka yacyo. Imiterere y'ingufu z'amashanyarazi.

Mu Rwanda imitere y'inguzu z'umuliro ishobora kuvugwa muli make. Ikoreshwa ry'inkwi nibwo buryo hafi bwonyine abaturage bose bakoresha. Ubwo buryo buhwanye na 93 % bw'ingufu zose zikenerwa mu gihugu.

Ibi bituma umuntu atekereza ko kuli uwo murindi wo gukoresha ingufu z'inkwi, amashyamba yose ari mu gihugu azaba amaze gushira hagati y'umwaka w'2010 n'2015 ibyo kandi bizatuma imiterere y'ibidukikije, bitaretse n'ubukungu bw'igihugu, bihazahararira.

Umusozi waranduweho amashyamba kugirango uhingwe

Ikibazo cy'ubukungu n'imali

Mu rwego rw'ubukungu, itumizwa ry'ibijyanye na peteroli ridindiza ku buryo bugaragara umurego w'amajyambere y'igihugu. Gutumiza hanze ibijyanye na peteroli bitwara igihugu mirongo ine ku ijana (40%) y'ingero y'ubucuruzi bw'igihugu, mu gihe ikigero-fatizo cya peteroli (baril) cyaguraga amadorali 30 y'amanyamerika. Ntabwo dufite ibigereranyo bishya, ariko urugero-fatizo rukoreshwa mu bya petereri rwageze ku madolari 40 mu kwezi kwa gatanu 2004, kandi cyarenze ubu (29 Nzeri 2004) umupaka-fatizo w'amadolari 50 (haravugwa mu binyamakuru by'ubukungu ko bishobora kuzahagararira ku madolari y'Abanyamerika 60). Kuko u Rwanda ari igihugu gifungiranye mu mugabane wa Afurika, gutwara imizigo kuva ku cyambu cya Mombassa cg. Dar es -Salaam bituma igiciro k'ibikomoka kuli peteroli kikuba kabili iyo bigeze i Kigali.

Ku bijyanye n'ibidukikije ndetse n'imibereho y'ibinyabuzima

Ubuhinzi niyo soko y'ubukungu mu Rwanda kimwe no mu bihugu byose bili mu nzira y'amajyambere. Nyuma y'ibihingwa ngandura-rugo, u Rwanda ruhinga kandi icyayi n'ikawa, ibyo bihingwa bibili bikaba byikubiye ahagana 90 % by'ibicuruzwa byoherezwa mu mahanga. Gushaka kongera ahashobora guhingwa, bikenerwa kugirango abaturage biyongera cyane bashobore kubona ibilibwa bihagije, bifite ingaruka mbi zijyanye no gusenya vuba kandi ku buryo bukabije amashyamba. Uko gusenya amashyamba kongera isuli ndetse kurumbisha n'ubutaka.

Amashanyarazi :

Ikoreshwa ry'ingufu z'amashanyarazi mu Rwanda muri rusange riri hasi cyane y'ikigereranyo cyerekana ko igihugu kilimo gutera imbere mu rwego rw'inganda. Havugwa ko ikigereranyo cya 0,6 tep/habi/an aricyo kiri hasi mu gihe mu Rwanda bakili ku kigereranyo cya 0,16 tep/hab/an gusa ! Kugeza ubu, 80 ku ijana by'amashanyarazi akoreshwa yose akoreshwa mu mugi wa Kigali utuwe na bitanu ku ijana by'abaturage bose b'igihugu. Mu mwaka wa 2004, u Rwanda rwagize ikibazo gikomeye cy'umuliro w'amashanyarazi. Iryo bura ry'umuliro, ryatewe ahanini n'ubukungu bw'igihugu bwihuta cyane, ryongerwa kandi n'ibura ry'imvura, ryatumye ingomero z'amazi zibyara amashanyarazi zibura amazi. Gahunda yo mu rwengo rw'ingufu igamije kuvugurura imirongo y'amashanyarazi mu gihugu yashyizweho n'ikigo cya Leta kigenga ingufu z'amashanyarazi, amazi na gazi (ELECTROGAZ). Hagati aho hifashishijwe imashini zibyara umuliro w'amashanyarazi zaguzwe zifite ubushobozi bwa 12,8 MW. Icyemezo cyo gushyiraho izo mashini cyafashwe kugirango ikibazo k'iburya ry'umuliro w'amashanyarazi kibonerwe umuti ku buryo bubangutse. Ariko gukoresha izo mashini bisaba mazutu nyinshi cyane, k'uburyo bituma imali y'igihugu ihazaharira.

Ikibazo k'imibereho y'abaturage (kuba amashyamba n'amakara aturuka ku nkwi, bikenerwa mu gutegura ibyo kurya mu ngo bigenda bibura)

KUBA UMUBARE W'ABATURAGE WIYONGERA CYANE, KUBA ABATURAGE BATUYE KU BURYO BUTATANYE
U Rwanda ni igihugu gito, kili muli Afurika yo hagati. Gifite ubuso bwa 26.000 km², naho umubare w'abaturage batuye kuri km² imwe ukaba ariwo munini muli Afurika yose : uhwanye n'abaturage 300 kuli km². Ku mubare w'abaturage bose bangana na miliyoni umunani , abenshi batuye mu cyaro. Batandatu ku ijana gusa nibo batuye mu mugi. Imiturire y'abanyarwanda irangwa ahanini n'isambu yitaruye. Ibi bituma kugera ku majyambere bitoroha kubera ahantu henshi kandi hanyuranye haba hakeneye ibyo bikorwa by'amajyambere. Guverinoma iliho ubu yihaye ingamba yo gutuza abaturage hamwe kugirango hashobore gutegurwa, ku buryo bugaragara kandi bubereye, gahunda zijyanye n'ubuzima bwiza bw'abaturage. Iyo politili ijyanye n'ubushake bw'abaturage yagombye korohereza ishyirwa mu bikorwa rya porogaramu z'ingenzi mu rwego rw'ubuzima (kubaka amashuli), ubuzima (kubaka ibigo-nderabuzima n'amavuliro) ndetse n'insengero. Gahunda zo gushyiraho inganda zicirilitse zo gutunganya umwuka wa gazi metani cg. z'amashanyarazi bishobora gushishikaliza abaturage gutura hamwe.

 

Ikoreshwa ry'ingufu n'umuliro mu Rwanda mu mwaka w'1996 hakulikijwe isoko yazo.

 

IGISUBIZO K'IKI KIBAZO : IKIGEGA CYA GAZI META ILI MU KIYAGA CYA KIVU IDASHOBORA GUSHIRA

Ibi byose byerekaba ubusumbane buli mu gihugu bujyanye no kugera ku ngufu z'umuliro igihugu gifite, n'ingaruka z'ubwo busumbane ku mibereho y'abaturage. Muli urwo rwego rwihaliye, kugera ku ngufu kuli bose byabaye nk'ihame lishobora gutuma igihugu kigera ku majyambere bityo ubuzima bw'abaturage bukarushaho kuba bwiza. Kandi aha icyo tugamije ni ugufasha abaturage kugera ku ngufu kuko u Rwanda rufite mu kiyaga cya Kivu gazi metani idashobora gushira. Iyo gazi metani ni isoko y'ingufu nyinshi cyane ariko kugeza ubu idakoreshwa. Ikiyaga cya Kivu, mu burengerazuba bw'u Rwanda gifite umwihariko wacyo ku isi : Amazi yacyo, mu bujyakuzimu bwayo, afite ingano nini cyane ya gazi yivanze mu mazi. Ingano yayo ni miliyari 50 za m3 za metani zishobora kuzamurwa no gukoreshwa mu gutanga ingufu, zikaba zihwanye na toni miliyoni mirongo ine za petero (tep), zisinziliye kuli metero 250 munsi y'amazi y'ikiyaga cya Kivu. Iyo mani y'ingufu, ibaye itunganyijwe, yashobora guha u Rwanda isoko y'ingufu idashobora gushira k'uburyo rutakongera kugira ikibazo k'ingufu mu mishinga y'amajyambere. Ikindi kandi, gazi ikomeje kwikora no kwiyongera buli gihe. K'uburyo buli mwaka hiyongeraho m3 zili hagati ya miliyoni 125 na miliyoni 250.

Ikiyaga cya Kivu : Isoko y'ubuzima, isoko ya metani ?


UMWANZURO

U Rwanda ni igihugu gifite umurava, kigerageza kwigeza ku majyambere kuva kivuye mumahano yo muli 1994. Ikibazo ni uko uwo mugambi kihaye uzitirwa n'ikibazo gikomeye cyo kubura ingufu z'amashanyarazi. Kugera ku ngufu z'umuliro bisaba abaturage kwifashisha uburyo bwa karande, bw'inkwi. Ako kamenyero katumye u Rwanda rusenya igice kinini cy'amashyamba yarwo none rufite ikibazo gikomeye cyane kijyanye n'ibidukikije. Niba nta gikozwe, kurandura amashyamba bizihagarika ubwabyo mu myaka ili imbere kuberako amashyamba azaba yarashize. Bityo kuzamura gazi no kuyikoresha, bigomba gufasha mu kubungabunga umutungo kamere w'igihugu ubangamiwe no gukoreshwa cyane kandi mu buryo butabashije gukulikiranwa, dore ko iyo gazi ari isoko y'ingufu idahenze na busa, kandi idashobora gushira.