Ikiyaga cya Kivu Kuzamura gazi metani Guha agaciro gazi metani Inkeke iturutse ku mpamvu zisanzwe

IMIKORERE Y'URUGANDA RUTUNGANYA GAZI.

Umushinga wacu urateganya kuvika mu mazi, ku bujyakuzimu bulinganiye ibikoresho byose (ibitandukanya amazi na gazi, n'ibiyungurura gazi).

Kuba imilimo yose ikorerwa munsi y'amazi bifite inyungu nyinshi :

  • Ingano ya gazi isohoka mu mashini ivangura gazi n'amazi, izagomba gutunganwa, izagabanyuka.
  • Ingufu za gazi ziriyongera k'uburyo gutwara iyo gazi hakoreshejwe ibitembo byabigenewe byoroha
  • Iyungurura ndetse n'itwarwa rya gazi bishobora gukorwa hakoreshejwe ingufu nkeya
  • Gazi metani iva ku ruvange rw'amazi na gazi ivangurwa neza

Ariko ubu buryo bufite n'imbogamizi nyinshi :

  • Ingufu za ngombwa, mu kwizamura kwa gazi ivanze n'amazi ziragabanyuka
  • Igice kimwe cya metani gisigara mu mazi asubizwa mu kiyaga bityo iyo gazi ikaba imfabusa

Izo mbogamizi zifite ishingiro kuko zerekana icyagombye gukorwa uhereye ku bwinshi bwa gazi iboneka, na gazi itakara mu gihe cyo kuyitunganya.

 

 
  

Gutunganyiliza gazi munsi y'amazi

Kuko gazi ifite ubushobozi bwo kwivanga mu mazi bukeho inshuro 25 ugereranyije n'umwuka wa gaz carbonique (CO2), kwigaragaza kwayo kwagombye kuba mbere y'umwuka wa C02 biba bili kumwe. Mu by'ukuli, niba iyo myuka ibili (gaz méthane na gaz carbonique) yitwaraga ku buryo butandukanye, imyuka ya mbere ya gazi metani yagombye kugaragara nko kuli metero 120 uvuye mu ndiba y'ikiyaga, mu gihe imyuka za gaz carboniques zigaragara kuli etero 15 gusa.

Nk'uko bigaragara, mu gushyiraho ibikoresho bitandukanya gazi metani n'amazi mu ndiba y'ubujyakuzimu bw'ikiyaga cya Kivu, hagombye kuboneka metani imeze neza, naho umwuka wa CO2 ugasigara wivanze mu mazi. Ariko ubu buryo bwo kuzamura gazi metani ntabwo bubereye kuko butita ku miterere inyuranye y'imyuka ili mu Kiyaga cya Kivu: Mu gihe imyuka yikoze, gazi zose zili mu mazi zikwirakwiza muli iyo myuka kugeza igihe habonekeye ikigereranyo kijyanye n'izo gazi, ndetse n'ingufu z'amazi zilimo. Mu gihe gazi metani igaragaye, ukwivumbagatanya kwabayeho guhitisha ubundi bwoko bwa gazi zili mu mazi kugeza igihe habereyeho iringaniza z'igice k'ingufu zikora imbere mu myuka no mu mazi.

Iyo ngiro irakomeye cyane, kandi ntibyoroshye kwerekana ingano yayo ku buryo bugaragara. Kumenya imyitwarire y'amazi mu gihe azenguruka mu bitembo, gazi igatandukanywa n'amazi birakomeye kubera ibigomba kwibandwaho byinshi. Ivangura ry'amazi na gazi hakoreshejwe ingufu, ni ukuvuga mu gihe ibikoresho byashyizwe mu bujyakuzimu bw'amazi y'Ikivu, ubwinshi bwa metani buzaba bunini cyane ugereranyije n'ubwinshi bwa gazi yaboneka mu gihe imashini ivangura amazi na gazi ili hejuru y'amazi. Ibi byagaragajwe n'myanzuro y'ubushakashatsi bwakozwe mu gihe k'imyaka mirongo itatu.

Ku rundi ruhande, kubera ko igice kinini k'imyuka ya C02 ikomeza kwivanga mu mazi mu gihe ivangurwa ryakorewe mu bujyakuzimu bw'ikiyaga cya Kivu, ingano ya gazi iba ikeneye gutunganwa ni nkeya. Gahunda zo gutunganya gazi ishobora gushyirwaho kugirango hashobore kuboneka gazi ilimo metani nyinshi.

Gusa hali imbogamizi ebyili zigomba kwitabwaho :

  • Iya mbere, kubera ko gazi iboneka kuyivangura n'amazi iyo birangiye iba yagabanyutse, ingufu (force motrice d'auto pompage) zo kuzamura iyo gazi, ziragabanyuka nazo.
  • Iya kabili, gutandukanyiliza amazi na gazi mu ndiba y'ikiyaga byongera ubwinshi bwa gazi metani isigara mu mazi, ariyo mpamvu ubwinshi bwa gazi metani iboneka igabanuka.

 

Itakara rya gazi, ingano ya gazi, n'ihitamo ry'ingufu zikoreshwa mu kuyizamura.

Igabanuka rya gazi lijyana n'ubwiyongere bw'ubujyakuzimu bw'imashini itandukanya gazi n'amazi rigomba kwitabwaho mu guhitamo uburyo buzakoreshwa mu kuzamura no gutunganya gazi. Gutunganya gazi n'igiciro k'ingufu bisaba, bifitanye isano n'ubwinshi bwa gazi ikenera gutunganwa. Mu kugabanya ingano ya gazi, ingano y'amazi agomba kuvanwamo gazi nayo aragabanyuka, ariyo mpamvu ali ngombwa kureba umubyimba w'ibitembo uberanye.

Kugirango gazi itakara mu mazi ishobore kuba nke, hagomba kuba hali byibuze ubujyakuzimu bw'aho iyo gazi itunganyilizwa butali munsi ya metero icumi. Ariko uko kuvangura gazi n'amazi bikorerwa mu bujyakuzimu bw'ikiyaga, ni nako metani itakara mu mazi igenda irushaho kuba nyinshi. Ubujyakuzimu ntibugomba rero kuba burebure cyane. Gazi itakara igomba kuba nkeya uko bishobotse kose, birashoboka ko ubujyakuzimu bwa metero 30 ariwo mupaka uberanye no kuzamura gazi.

Ni ngombwa kandi kugereranya ihindagulika rya gazi iboneka hakulikije ubujyakuzimu bwashyizweho imashini itandukanya amazi na gazi. Ubu buryo bwerekana akamaro ko kudakorera mu bujyakuzimu cyane. Imibare yakozwe, ihereye ku bwinshi bw'amazi arimo gazi, ituma hagereranywa ibice cumi na bitatu ku ijana (13 %) by'ingufu zitakara mu gihe ubujyakuzimu bwongereweho metero eshanu.

Niba kuzamura no gutunganyiliza gazi mu mazi y'ikiyaga bigaragara ko aribwo buryo bwiza, si na ngombwa ariko kubutaka cyane. Gazi metani ihatakaliza ni nyinshi.